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370 000 CURRENT $ OF COST

 

      They do not let of be all they meaningful details of the ideas clarity that Colón had of the expedition. But yet it is more, when Colón loads the nao provisions it with the just quantity of provisionses for the voyage that is going to accomplish (they exhausted the provisions a pair of days before sighting land, just the time that it was without winds upon crossing the central zone of the anticyclone, (all this remains clearly documented in the" Diario "), chance?.

 

Caravel

Nao

  Traditionally it is represented the first trip with three naos (figure of the right), and is spoken of three caravels (figure of the left). In reality the trip was accomplished with two caravels and a nao.

Caravel (Pinta & Niña)

Nao (Santa María)

   

 

   Nevertheless, we continue with our Admiral, because in truth that it is a personage "strange". we Said that, according to the historiography to the use, was proposing a new commercial route with Western Indias, but always was wanting to try directly with the you laugh; it is more, when already it is decided to be gone of Spain, it is going to seek to the France king. Would not be what is logical that it proposed the commercial routes to noble or merchants?. Why it were pawned in negotiating solely with the kings?.

   Perhaps it help us to understand this mania of the Admiral if we are capable of locating us his era, and above all in the different kingdoms of the peninsula Ibérica in the previous centuries: The kings, always they paid to the nobility or to the mercenaries by part of the territories that they would be gained by the individual that them was helping; and were applied the same political, above all in Portugal, with the uncovereded lands. A track more than the authentic longings of the dodge personage to which we call Colón.

   Already we have commented previously that in Azores there was people that was risked in the adventure. In Spain, it arrived to speak with the dukes of Medinacelli and Medina Sidonia, but always as intermediary to arrive to the kings, not so that sponsored his project.

   But yet it is more, when the kings (of Portugal or Spain) listen to Colón, cause that show the calculations to the experts, (seems be that was the usage, but attention, is not discussed the project, if not the calculations) those of the Escuela de Navegantes in Portugal, or the Universidad de Salamanca in Spain, and he, it does not doubt absolutely of believing that it is capable of be to the height of they.

   That knowledge level saw in this man to think that if was achieving to convince their/ expert what was saying was feasible?. If both courts might have thought that what was saying was madmen thing, or they were before a man that it did not had level to discuss with those before who were sending to him it more sure is that Colón might not have reached ever the meetings with the boards; we would recall that his brother Bartolomé never arrived neither in London nor in Paris at that level, in spite of be more than thirteen years attempting it. Which was the difference between the two brothers, so that in smaller exigency courts, the brother do not arrive of up to the levels of our personage?.

   The second issue, is that both kingdoms were interested in the project of Colón; it would be the one which would be, if not, are not had taken the nuisance of "to consult to the experts". And so much was interesting that Portugal lied to Colón, and in spite of the experts paid an expedition. It more curious, is that we know that the project was rejected because was supposing a much more long navigation of the one which Colón was proposing.

   The theoretical base of Colón part of the work "Ymago Mundi" of Pierre d'Ailly, and a map of the famous Italian cartographer Toscanelli (of the that Colón was presuming that was friend, arriving to write that was maintaining correspondence with him, falsehood that they have demonstrated the modern historians, just as they have found of the fact that form could be made with a copy of the map when was residing in Lisbon.

   Toscanelli had reduced the oceanic water bulk to 160º of those which 20º already they were explored (Canarias and Azores), and 15º were corresponding to the distance that mean between Cypango and the Asian continent; herefore, the result of the accounts gives 125º for the oceanic bulk.

   Marino de Tiro, was proposing 120º, and from there part Colón, but furthermore, them remains 20º understood between Europe and Canarias, and displaces Cypango toward the east, with what "calculates" a distance of 50º for the mentioned bulk, and takes advantage to Esdrás (one of the smaller prophets of the Ancient Testament) that asserts that only a seventh of the land is covered by water (360:7=51) to reaffirm his thesis; thinking perhaps that the doctors, by belonging many of them to religious orders, were believing more in the Bible than in the mathematics.

   .In spite of this contradiction with Toscanelli, Colón is supported in the Florentine and the French already mentioned to assert that an equatorial degree is equal to 56 miles and 2 / 3, but Colón (navigator, and cartographer), takes the Arabic mile of 1.481 meters instead of the marine mile.

   If by a moment we stop ourselves to think that was an expert sailor, that was knowing the cartographic techniques perfectly, and that as demonstrates in all what he has written was a tremendously orderly and meticulous man. Furthermore was he a reader and studious indurated, and an observer of first magnitude, (since to him owe three important discoveries that mentions in the "Viajes" : that the Earth does not has form of field, if not that it is flattened by the poles and swollen by the equator; that the polar star is not "fixed" in the space, if not that declines approximately 5º; and that the magnetic north does not coincide with the physical north). That we should think we?.

   They are not strange so many mistakes in a so meticulous man? . It is not logical to think that Colón was "adapting" the theory at a distance that he already was knowing? . Because does not let of be queerly surprising that with as much mistake detected by the own expert and by so much put in writing to inform the monarchs, so much the king of Portugal as Santángel, they do not doubt of the word of Colón.

   But men as the notary to the service of the king of Aragon, that belongs to a converse Jews family, merchants and bankers,? Believe they solely in the word of the future Admiral?. Expose a quantity of own money, immense for the era, solely by words, and with all the reports against her?. Years afterwards, the family of Santángel was condemned by the Inquisition and is believed that the own notary died in the bonfire, without the already Virrey de las Indias Occidentales moved a finger to help ancient sponsoring of the trip. Curious, it is not truth?

   And now, we return by a moment to the ships: two caravels that by the data of the "Diario" , would load some 60-70 tons than what today we would call "pay load" , but that leave of the prt of Palos, and of that of La Gomera empty, that is to say, is supposed that was thinking to return with some 120 tons of spices and other elements that was acquired in East, if is that was going to seek a new commercial route. We are speaking of approximately six "trucks" . How much money would have to have carried the Admiral to pay that load in origin? .

   What yes we know is that was having a million four hundred thousand maravedís; that he put through loans other four hundred thousand, and the rest until some two million voted it the Pinzón brothers; in fact all the project had to cost some 55 million of pesetas of those of today; but with that could arm the two caravels, to pay advances to the crew (some 100 men) and to freight and to load with provisioning it nao.

   We go to make a little of summary above all the data that up until now we have:

   - Colón had a project that was presenting solely to the kings.
- The "official name" of the project, with the one which has passed to the History is that of a new commercial route by West, until Eastern Indias.
- To the kings of Castille and Portugal them interests the project in Colón.
- Would see to Colón with the sufficient level as to discuss technical problems with their better expert.
- To discuss with the committees, Colón manipulates the data and "reduces" flagrantly the distance by west to Eastern Indias.
- Yet in spite of all this, that it is known for the sovereigns, Portugal, as well as Castille, invest money in the project of Colón.
- Left toward high sea as the fishing fleets, and with a quantity of provisioning exact for the route that continued.
- Was carrying two mercantile ships, that for the era were of great tonnage, but empty.
- Does not consist that it carried money as to pay the load in destination by the one which to fill both ships, neither to surcharge the nao with foods and water for the return.
- Sought for the expedition a nao built by expert carpenters in Atlantic voyage ships, with one of the better cartographers of the era in her, and he as such ship captain.
- Supposed that it carried money, the coined currency in the West was not valid in East to negotiate; or was carrying commodities that are appreciated in East, or was carrying gold, and gold of good law.

   That it can be deduced of the foregoing? :

   - That Colón, it had indisputable tests of the fact that between Europe and Asia were existing some still unknown lands.
- That Colón, was the only one that was knowing the exact distance such lands and the routes of departure and return navigation, as well as the streams and the winds.
- That the both wreath monarchs, they were the first interested in which is not known of the existence of those lands until they would not be "officially his"
- That there was a previous the one which expedition or Colón formed part, or had very direct news, sponsored by someone with the sufficient power as to claim the lands new to the kings, if were known that the data were originating of such expedition.

   These conclusions, they are the only that give sense to all the "mystery" on the one which is seated the subsidy of the first trip, since before the tests of Colón, it more logical is that while the Admiral "was convincing" the experts, the sovereigns investigated in a way discreet the previous expeditions existence by that route, the sponsors of such expeditions, the crews that were carrying, and the luck that ran, therefore they could certify in a way indirect most of tests shown by Colón

   And with respect to gold to negotiate the purchase of "spices" we go to transcribe a paragraph of the teacher Vicens-Vives that results very meaningful.

"The real root of the facts that characterize the era of the large discoveries, is found in a manner new of thinking and of living that it is typical of the final of the Middle Ages, and already noticeable in all the European West in the beginning of the century XIV: the peoples begin to aspire to a life less overwhelmed, more comfortable and luxurious than that of their forebears.

The winter grass shortage was compelling by then to the European cattlemen to sacrifice each Autumn many cattle heads. The problem of preserving these meats, vital for human communities that in good part come subsisting to the edge of the hunger, determines an insatiable preservative substances demand: salt of the Europe south, the most common and cheap of all; pepper of the East or of the western Africa, the most used spice; cinnamon, nugmet nut and ginger, all of Asian origin, as well as the nail, the most sought of the spices.

Near the need, the luxury. The Chinese silks and Indian cotton have increasingly wide acceptance as compared to the coarse, smelly wool fabrics; the rhubarb and other Chinese products are quoted increasingly in medicine; several classes of precious stones, as emeralds of India, sapphires of Ceilán and rubies of the Tíbet, have growing demand. Clothes, furniture, all the supports of the daily life, earn each day in refinement. The luxury and the showiness appear in the cities, and especially in the residences of the nobility.

Money, infallible means to achieve all these things, maximum welfare and wealth sign, it is increasingly wished. The chronicles and the literature of the era show clearly the typical gold thirst of the final of the Medieval. From here the need that experience the social groups more characterized king, courtier, noble, of increasing their sources of income.

To acquire money, there was in Andalusia several possibilities, and all were employed. Was a, to organize the struggle against the Musulmans as mercantile companies directed to acquire booty, and such were many of the undertaken by the noble Andalusian in territories of the Moors, though its organization and economic aspects may have been little investigated. These companies not only are accomplished by land, but also by sea, against the navigation and the Musulman coastal cities of the Grenada kingdom and of the north of Africa, acquiring a typical mixed character, of piratical business"

 

   Apparently more up, clear remain that precisely it was not seeming the moment most adequate to obtain said metal for the trip. We know, furthermore, that the own Reyes Católicos accomplished the Grenada conquest as a commercial company, where the noble were receiving lands, titles and señoríos in function from the contributions and conquests that accomplished they.

   Analyzing coolly the all situation carries us to the hypothesis of the fact that the Admiral left with two empty ships, without money, and that knew to convince the patrons of the fact that was going them to bring you fill with that that more were needed in the era: spices? , not: gold! . And gold, obtained easily in some new those which lands he was requesting part, in the same way that had been conquered Grenada.

   We study the "Capitulaciones de Santa Fë"; and we recall first of all that are signed 17 of April in Santa Fe, a small town that is far some 12Km. of Grenada, and Colón part of Palos (en Huelva) 3 of August of the same year.! In three months and middle, organizes all the expedition, even contracting hundred men! , and brings for the expedition to Juan de la Cosa and to the Santa Maria from the north of Spain. That it requests Colón in the Capitulaciones? :

   The title and prerrogative of Almirante de la mar Océano (that of Castille already was existing and was of one of the Large of the Kingdom of course), but attention: Virrey and General Governor of the uncovereded lands and the tenth part of the commodities that from there are obtained. Queen and purchasable are covenanting a mercantile society and the object of the dealing (nobility titles to a side) are new lands, not the benefits of a new route. Both doing not know the magnitude of what is covenanted, but they were absolutely sure of the object of the agreement: new lands and the wealth that were containing. why.

   Virrey and governing; why those conditions of Colón? . (the negotiations were "broken" a pair of times precisely by the requirements of the personage). In that historical moment, Alonso Fernández de Lugo it is also negotiating the capitulaciones of the conquest of La Palma (September - October of 1492), but El Adelantado, that exposes all the fortune that had in the stake, procures solely the governor cargo, while Colón, in addition to the nobility titles, requests 10% of the benefits of the development; more 8,5% of the commercial sales taxes, and the total right to choose the crew, without in her the kings could order notarys or officials of no type. Furthermore, in the first trip, and in spite of all the existing iconography, it did not depart neither an only friar or cure with the expedition, thing misses for the one which seeks solely a commercial route to arrive to the land of the Gran Khan, and furthermore to baptize to him. That difference to Colón of El Adelantado? .

   Very simple, the difference of economic benefits between the two companies. For the treaty of Alcaçovas (1479), the Canarias "belong" to the kingdom of Castille, nobody is going to be dared to be faced to Castille and Portugal by some very strategic islands but little profitable, and the conquest of Tenerife and La Palma it is not high-priority, since therefore is known there is no large wealth, neither they are possible agricultural accessions of great magnitude, and with the sales taxes of La Gomera already there are sufficient benefits and the Queen considers that should not to invest more in the business.

   Why Santángel and the Queen (financed the project the one or the other) were sure than what was offering Colón?, What information had the family of the notary so that this to the service of the King of Aragón mediated with the Queen of Castille? . And we should not forget that this mediation is the decisive so that the first trip could be accomplished. The logic deduction is that the family Santángel in a decisive moment (when Colón already was departing toward France) obtained the necessary tests of the fact that the affirmations of Colón of finding new lands the distance that he was saying, they were certain

   Conclusion: Colón was knowing perfectly where were existing some lands still ignored by the Europeans; was knowing as arriving to them, and above all as returning; and had tests of the fact that in them could be found gold and other elements that the society went to consider luxurious and expensive and that, furthermore, could despoil them with an effort minimum.

   We put for example the case of Canarias; no matter how much Fernández de Lugo knew La Palma, was knowing that it had first that to conquer it as compared to some adverse tribes, and indeed does not seem feasible that entered within its ideas, that once conquered could fill mercantile two with gold or other valuable objects simply by the fact with "to tread" the island.

   However, Colón knows that it does not must fight, since recruit a crew composed fundamentally by sailors; and has absolute confidence in filling two caravels with "appraised things" (by giving to him some name), simply by arriving there where must go. And covenants for him, 10% of the benefits of the development.

   That conclusion, it is the only one that it can explain the requirements of the negotiation, the desire of carrying the best possible cartographer, (to be assured he same its dominances), the exact dosing of the provisionings, and the careful election of the crew, without "useless of sea or land" according to explains the own Admiral.

   It was delayed more than a decade in verifying the tests that were endorsing the history, but in how much someone the could verify, in addition to putting on its hands a fortune and the expedition was ready to depart in hundred days, absolutely necessary thing for power to have the favorable winds that was assuring the position of the anticyclone in autumn.

   .The legend will speak of "discovery" , of "search of new commercial routes" , but Christopher Colón, left 3 of August of 1492 to be found definitely with some lands whose existence was knowing and with the decisive purpose of the fact that they would be exploited, and to bequeath them to its children and grandsons so that continued the development. With the advantage of the fact that being so far from the kingses and with the annex powers to the titles of virrey and governing, could be behaved as an authentic satrap. Totally normal purposes in his era, it can not be judged as a "deliberate wickedness" neither to seek the Marxist senses of the words.

   But the legend of the "Discovery" , it is much more romantic, nationalistic and advertising that the analysis cold of the data and the utilization of the common sense, that here it has been exposed. For this, we think that during centuries will be followed reading and hearing it of Colón and its three caravels challenging fearlessly the dread to the seas unknown to find the western part of the Indians, and discovering, "by chance" , a new continent.

   Today, the legends deluge our daily reality just as in the classic era; we do not have to Zeus convert into bull to seduce to Europe, neither to Danae receive gold rain or oracle from Delfos, but we can present to "magicians" laden with million in base to guess the future, to a Elvis Presley that lets each year million of dollars, to the hundreds of followers of the countless sects, or the "appearances" of the Virgin for some and the UFOS for other.

   It has occurred, from always, that in political and economic factors function the historical realities have been "adapted" to the political and particular conveniences and thus, the "Discovery" and Colón are not more than other chapter of the ancient commercial routes that born with Jasón and that the powerfuls manipulate.

Marginal considerations:

   1ª.- The historians have centered always the topic of the "discovery" in the departure trip, but as demonstrated Santiago Genovés and Thor Eyerdhal, with the expeditions R I and R II, enough a papyrus raft, knowledge of the streams or a little of luck to reach the American continent. The transcendency of the first trip of Colón, it is in the return, the return trip is the authentically fundamental, and in short we wait to widen this document occupying us of he.

   2ª.- We believe that should not of remaining already it doubts some on the fact of the fact that Colón obtained the data for the trip of a previous expedition, well by participation in her, or because the random carried them to him. It more sure is that upon negotiating directly with the kingses, the Admiral discovered part of that secret, and what is certain, is that nobody mentions that expedition, why?

   Evident, if were known that was existing a previous expedition, the sponsor could request rights on what is overdraft, and now comes the question of the million of dollars, who was so powerful as for power be faced to Castille or Portugal and to demand those rights? , indeed, not the sailor peoples and fishing.

   3ª.- The family Santángel is condemned to the bonfire by the Inquisition. It was the revenge of the king of Aragón because its subject put on hands of Castille the test that made possible the trip of Colón?. It was Aragón sponsoring of a previous expedition near some of the large Catalan family merchants of the Mediterranean sea in the one which did not participate the Santángel?......All the political setup (included the title of Virrey) of the discovery and the America conquest is made by expert of Aragón and based on the jurisdictions and laws of this kingdom.

FINAL CONCLUSION:

   That Colón would not be the "first" in arriving to America, it does not has the smaller transcendency, solely nationalistic prides or closed minds can give importance to the fact of the arrival. What actually it transcended in the History of The Humanity, is that was the first in returning in a way "historical" , that is to say, letting witness for all of the fact that had returned and what had found.

   However, the historical studies on the return trip are strange and scarce from there that at present we are working in this phase and we request your collaboration. If it has been at the point here, is that the topic interests to you as soon as please if knows something on winds in the Atlantic in the return route, sailor problems to approach said route, marine letters that explain the streams, or any datum that consider meaningful on the topic of the return, help us and sends yours information to the electronic mail that we have indicated to you.

Thanks by your attention.

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This is a "nao".